Science Components


Soils-R-GGREAT: Soils research to deliver greenhouse gas removals and abatement technologies. This consortium study analysed the global potential for soil-based greenhouse gas removal, and how this varies by practice and region. It included investigating the social, cultural and ecological impacts, current policies that prevent implementation and future policies that may enable wider adoption, managing risks, and integration with other greenhouse gas removal approaches. Led by Pete Smith, Aberdeen; with others at SRUC, Newcastle, Cranfield and Edinburgh.

FAB-GGR: Feasibility of afforestation and biomass energy with carbon capture storage for greenhouse gas removal. This consortium study investigated whether increased biological removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (with either natural or managed carbon storage) could deliver significant climatic benefits, and evaluated the environmental, technical, economic, policy and societal implications of such approaches. Led by Naomi Vaughan, UEA; with others at Exeter, Manchester & Aberdeen.

Enhanced weathering: Releasing divalent cations to sequester carbon on land and sea. This consortium study assessed the practicability of using enhanced weathering of waste materials from mining as a greenhouse gas removal technique. It investigated the availability of suitable materials, the rates of their breakdown, mechanisms for accelerating carbon dioxide uptake, implications for the ocean, and societal implications. Led by Gideon Henderson, Oxford; with others at Heriot-Watt, Southampton and Cambridge.

Comparative assessment and region-specific optimisation of greenhouse gas removal :This consortium study focussed on the conditions for meeting the Paris Agreement targets, regional variation in the options for greenhouse gas removal, the scope for inter-region cooperation to reduce climate policy costs and how greenhouse gas removal technologies will interact with low carbon energy systems. Led by Niall Mac Dowell, Imperial College; with others at UCL, Cambridge, Oxford and UEA.


GGRiLS-GAPS: Greenhouse gas removal in the land sector – addressing the gaps. This project assessed the emissions reduction gap in the land sector at a country level, using this to identify options and incentivise greenhouse gas removal activities based on improved carbon accounting. Led by Jo House, Bristol.

Greenhouse gas removal in the iron and steel industry : This project investigated the techno-economic impact and environmental feasibility of using iron and steel slag deposits to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.  Led by Phil Renforth, Heriot-Watt.

CALIBRE:  Co-delivery of food and climate regulation by temperate agroforestry. This model-based project examined the potential for combining trees with agriculture as a greenhouse gas removal technique in temperate regions, estimating carbon storage in trees and soil. Policy and socio-economic barriers were also investigated. Led by Martin Lukac, Reading.

New methodologies for removal of methane from the atmosphere :  This project carried out proof of concept methane sampling to identify major ‘intractable’ agricultural and industrial sources; it designed and tested novel biological and chemical methane-removal systems that are economically viable.  Led by Euan Nisbet, Royal Holloway.

MERLIN: Metrics for emission removal limits for nature. This project focused on the reversibility of climate change, to determine how its adverse impacts might be affected by the timing of the deployment of greenhouse gas removal. Led by Simon Tett, Edinburgh.

UP-green-LCA: Harmonising and upgrading green house gas removal consequential life cycle assessment.  This project developed methods for comparing all the implications (indirect costs and benefits) of using different greenhouse gas removal techniques, using the approach of consequential life cycle assessment. Led by Adrian Williams, Cranfield.

AMDEG: Assessing the mitigation deterrence effects of greenhouse gas removal. This project investigated how greenhouse gas removal can interact with, and also either complement, reinforce or deter, existing and anticipated conventional mitigation through emission reductions. Led by Nils Markusson, Lancaster.